Alternative Rock Jetzt erst recht: Die US-Rocker meistern alle Widrigkeiten. Fiction To Shame. "Keep Them Entertained" GREAT CRUSADES, THE. The crusaders' stunning initial success started a sequence of great Crusades, each with its own story, that fundamentally shaped the Christian and Muslim. Jetzt erst recht: Die US-Rocker meistern alle Widrigkeiten. Die Geschichte der Great Crusades beginnt , doch kennen tun sich die Bandmitglieder schon.
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The Great Crusades The Failures of Crusaders Video[For Honor] The Great Crusade
The review described the album as an improvement relative to its predecessor, 's Never Go Home , which it called "disappointing". From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
The Great Crusades. The Edwardsville Intelligencer. After a few skirmishes and some inconclusive battles, the Third Crusade ended with no real progress made.
The three kings squabbled almost the entire trip, and Richard managed to antagonize his allies to such a degree that he found his return trip to Europe blocked by hostile Germans, who captured Richard and held him for ransom.
However, it was a victory over Christians, rather than Muslims. Though Pope Innocent III had called this crusade to rescue Jerusalem, the Venetian traders who provided the funding and ships for this crusade had a different idea.
Hoping to undermine one of their greatest trading rivals, the Venetians persuaded the Crusaders to attack Constantinople, the capitol of the Byzantine Empire.
The Crusaders would hold Constantinople for about 60 years before the Greeks finally took their kingdom back. Nevertheless, the deathblow had been dealt to the Byzantine Empire, though it would take the massive Byzantine bureaucracy another two centuries to realize it.
Thousands of young people from across Europe tried to make their way to the Holy Land, thinking that their youthful innocence would succeed where their elders had failed.
Many died trying to cross the Alps, but most never made it further than Marseilles, where they were sold as slaves. Realizing that this abuse of crusading was beginning to make Christianity look really bad, Innocent III called the fourth Lateran council, and redirected the Crusaders toward Egypt, which he considered to be the heart of Muslim resistance.
Though the Crusaders were able to take a town or two, they were forced to surrender their gains after a devastating defeat at the hands of Sultan Al-Kamil, who had succeeded Saladin as Sultan of Egypt.
Yet, it was a victory of diplomacy rather than a victory of warfare. Unlike previous crusading kings, Frederick II of Germany actually bothered to learn Arabic.
This allowed him to negotiate the return of Jerusalem with the Egyptian Sultan Al-Kamil. Unfortunately, this peace was short lived, and by , Jerusalem was once again in the hands of Muslims.
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Later that year at the Council of Clermont, Urban raised the issue of military support again and preached for a crusade. This was part of wide-ranging anti-Jewish activities, extending from limited, spontaneous violence to full-scale military attacks.
Many people wondered why they should travel thousands of miles to fight non-believers when there were already non-believers closer to home.
Almost immediately after leaving Byzantine controlled territory on their journey to Nicaea the crusaders were annihilated in a Turkish ambush at the battle of Civetot.
But members of the high aristocracy from France, western Germany, the Low Countries , Languedoc and Italy led independent military contingents in loose, fluid arrangements based on bonds of lordship, family, ethnicity and language.
Foremost amongst these was the elder statesman, Raymond IV, Count of Toulouse. He was rivalled by the relatively poor but martial Italo-Norman Bohemond of Taranto and his nephew Tancred.
They were joined by Godfrey of Bouillon and his brother Baldwin and forces from Lorraine , Lotharingia , and Germany.
These five princes were pivotal to the campaign, which was also joined by a northern French army led by: Robert Curthose , Count Stephen II of Blois , and Count Robert II of Flanders.
The over-confident Sultan Kilij Arslan left the city to resolve a territorial dispute, thus enabling its capture after a crusader siege and a Byzantine naval assault.
This was a high point in Latin and Greek co-operation and the beginning of crusader attempts to take advantage of disunity in the Muslim world.
The first experience of Turkish tactics, using lightly armoured mounted archers, occurred when an advanced party led by Bohemond and Robert was ambushed at Dorylaeum.
The Normans resisted for hours before the arrival of the main army caused a Turkish withdrawal. Numbers were reduced by starvation, thirst and disease, combined with Baldwin's decision to leave with knights and their followers to carve out his own territory in Edessa which became one of the crusader states.
Finally, Bohemond persuaded a guard in the city to open a gate. The crusaders entered, massacring the Muslim inhabitants as well as many Christians amongst the Greek Orthodox, Syrian and Armenian communities.
A force to recapture the city was raised by Kerbogha , the effective ruler of Mosul. The Byzantines did not march to the assistance of the crusaders because the deserting Stephen of Blois told them the cause was lost.
Instead Alexius retreated from Philomelium , where he received Stephen's report, to Constantinople. The Greeks were never truly forgiven for this perceived betrayal and Stephen was branded a coward.
Bohemond recognised that the only remaining option was open combat and launched a counterattack.
Despite superior numbers, Kerbogha's army — which was divided into factions and surprised by the Crusaders commitment and dedication— retreated and abandoned the siege.
The debate ended when news arrived that the Fatimid Egyptians had taken Jerusalem from the Seljuk Turks, making it imperative to attack before the Egyptians could consolidate their position.
Bohemond remained in Antioch, retaining the city, despite his pledge to return it to Byzantine control, while Raymond led the remaining crusader army rapidly south along the coast to Jerusalem.
An initial attack on the city failed, and the siege became a stalemate, until the arrival of craftsmen and supplies transported by the Genoese to Jaffa tilted the balance.
Crusaders constructed two large siege engines; the one commanded by Godfrey breached the walls. For two days the crusaders massacred the inhabitants and pillaged the city.
Historians now believe the accounts of the numbers killed have been exaggerated, but this narrative of massacre did much to cement the crusaders' reputation for barbarism.
When it came to the future governance of the city it was Godfrey who took leadership and the title Defender of the Holy Sepulchre.
The presence of troops from Lorraine ended the possibility that Jerusalem would be an ecclesiastical domain and the claims of Raymond.
Tancred was the other prince who remained. His ambition was to gain a Crusader state princedom of his own. The Islamic world seems to have barely registered the crusade; certainly, there is limited written evidence before This may be in part due to a reluctance to relate Muslim failure, but it is more likely to be the result of cultural misunderstanding.
Al-Afdal Shahanshah , the new vizier of Egypt, and the Muslim world mistook the crusaders for the latest in a long line of Byzantine mercenaries, rather than religiously motivated warriors intent on conquest and settlement.
Even the Turks remained divided, they had found unity unachievable since the death of Sultan Malik-Shah in , with rival rulers in Damascus and Aleppo.
This gave the Crusaders a crucial opportunity to consolidate without any pan-Islamic counter-attack.
This led to high mortality rates among the nobility as well as a policy of encouraging settlers from the West and Christians from across the Jordan.
The Crusade ended in failure after Alexius starved Bohemond of supplies by cutting his supply lines.
The resulting Treaty of Devol , although never implemented, forced Bohemond to acknowledge Alexius as his feudal overlord. The expansion of Norman Antioch came to an end in with a major defeat by the Turks at the battle of the Field of Blood.
Under the papacies of successive popes, smaller groups of crusaders continued to travel to the eastern Mediterranean to fight the Muslims and aid the crusader states.
The Templars, along with the other Military Orders, are estimated to have provided half the military strength of the kingdom of Jerusalem.
For the first time, the rise of Imad ad-Din Zengi saw the Crusaders threatened by a Muslim ruler attempting to restore jihad to Near Eastern politics.
After his father was executed for treason in the Seljuk succession crisis little is known of his early years. He became Atabeg of Mosul in and used this to expand his control to Aleppo and then Damascus.
In he conquered Edessa. After a delay of nearly two years preaching began for what subsequently became known as the Second Crusade.
Initially, support was sluggish, partly because Pope Eugenius III delegated the preaching. The French Benedictine abbot , Bernard of Clairvaux spread the message that the loss was the result of sinfulness, and redemption was the reward for crusading.
Simultaneously, the anti-Semitic crusade preaching of a Cistercian monk called Rudolf initiated further massacres of Jews in the Rhineland.
Zengi was murdered in uncertain circumstances. His elder son Saif ad-Din succeeded him as atabeg of Mosul while a younger son Nur ad-Din succeeded him in Aleppo.
Edessa had been destroyed, making its recovery impossible, and the crusade's objectives were unclear. Hostility developed between the French and the Byzantines.
The French blamed the Byzantines for defeats suffered against the Seljuks in Anatolia, while the Byzantines laid claims on future territorial gains in northern Syria.
As a result, in a decision that historians now criticise, the crusaders attacked the Seljuks of Damascus.
This broke a long period of cooperation and coexistence between Jerusalem and Damascus. Bad luck, poor tactics and a feeble five-day siege of Damascus led to internal arguments; the barons of Jerusalem withdrew support and the crusaders retreated before the arrival of a relief army led by Zengi's sons.
Morale fell, hostility to the Byzantines grew and distrust developed between the newly arrived crusaders and those that had made the region their home after the earlier crusades.
In the conquest of Ascalon opened a strategic road south from Palestine and Jerusalem demonstrated an increasing interest in expanding into Egyptian territory.
He had been deposed as vizier in an outbreak of systemic and murderous Egyptian political intrigue. He wanted political and military support that would aid in regaining the viziership.
Nur ad-Din prevaricated, but responded when it became apparent that the crusaders might otherwise gain a strategic foothold on the Nile.
Some historians consider this decision a visionary attempt to surround the crusaders. However, Shawar asserted his independence.
He formed an alliance with Baldwin's brother and successor King Amalric. When Amalric broke the alliance in a ferocious attack, Shawar again requested military support from Syria.
Nur ad-Din sent Shirkuh for a second time. Shirkuh was joined by his nephew, Yusuf ibn Ayyub, who became known by his honorific 'Salah al-Din' 'the goodness of faith' , which has been westernised as Saladin.
Amalric retreated and Saladin captured and executed Shawar. Saladin successfully intrigued to be appointed vizier in succession to Shirkuh when his uncle died two months later.
Saladin assumed control and had the strategic choice of establishing Egypt as an autonomous power or attempting to become the pre-eminent Muslim in the eastern Mediterranean; he chose the latter.
While Nur al-Din's territories fragmented, Saladin legitimised his ascent by positioning himself as a defender of Sunni Islam, subservient to both the Caliph of Baghdad and to Nur al-Din's year-old son and successor, As-Salih Ismail al-Malik.
Overconfidence and tactical errors led to defeat at the Battle of Montgisard. He increased campaigning against the Latin Christians. Saladin lured the force into inhospitable terrain without water supplies, surrounded the Latins with a superior force, and routed them at the Battle of Hattin.
Guy was amongst the Christian nobles taken prisoner, but he was later released. Saladin offered the Christians the option of remaining in peace under Islamic rule or taking advantage of 40 days' grace to leave.
As a result of his victory, much of Palestine quickly fell to Saladin, including—after a short five-day siege —Jerusalem. Urban III's successor as pope, Gregory VIII , issued a papal bull titled Audita tremendi that proposed what became known as the Third Crusade to recapture Jerusalem.
In August , the freed King Guy attempted to recover Acre from Saladin by surrounding the strategic city , only for his own forces to be besieged in turn.
The crusaders became so deprived at times they are thought to have resorted to cannibalism. Philip considered his vow fulfilled and returned to France to deal with domestic matters, leaving most of his forces behind.
But Richard travelled south along the Mediterranean coast, defeated the Muslims near Arsuf , and recaptured the port city of Jaffa. He twice advanced to within a day's march of Jerusalem.
Richard judged that while Saladin had a mustered army he lacked the resources to successfully capture the city or defend it in the unlikely event of a successful assault.
This marked the end of Richard's crusading career and was a calamitous blow to Frankish morale. In , the recently elected Pope Innocent III announced a new crusade, organised by three Frenchmen: Theobald of Champagne ; Louis of Blois ; and Baldwin of Flanders.
After Theobald's premature death, the Italian Boniface of Montferrat replaced him as the new commander of the campaign.
They contracted with the Republic of Venice for the transportation of 30, crusaders at a cost of 85, marks.
However, many chose other embarkation ports and only around 15, arrived in Venice. The Doge of Venice Enrico Dandolo proposed that Venice would be repaid with the profits of future conquests beginning with the seizure of the Christian city of Zara.
Pope Innocent III's role was ambivalent. He only condemned the attack when the siege started. He withdrew his legate to disassociate from the attack but seemed to have accepted it as inevitable.
Historians question whether for him, the papal desire to salvage the crusade may have outweighed the moral consideration of shedding Christian blood.
This ended with his murder in a violent anti-Latin revolt. The crusaders were without ships, supplies or food leaving them with little option other than to take by force what Alexios had promised.
The Sack of Constantinople involved three days of pillaging churches and killing much of the Greek Orthodox Christian populace.
The majority of the crusaders considered continuation of the crusade impossible. Many lacked the desire for further campaigning and the necessary Byzantine logistical support was no longer available.
Louis, Missouri, to work on tunes at the Gaslight studio on The Hill. Posted by Brian Krumm on Mar 7, March 27 Moers, Germany — JZ Henri March 28 Bonn, Germany — Harmonie — Rockpalast Crossroads Festival March 29 Norderstedt, Germany — Music Star March 30 Solingen, Germany — Cobra Hat March 31 Ravensburg, Germany — Balthes April 1 Langenau, Germany — Kapilio April 2 Arnstadt, Germany — Kulisse April 3 Surprise Show April 4 Heilbronn, Germany — Red River Saloon April 29 Chicago, Illinois Schubas with Pope Urban II preaches the First Crusade.
Alexius I Comnenus asks for and receives oaths of fealty and promises to return lands formerly under Byzantine control. Turks under Kilij Arslan unsuccessfully attack the crusaders at Dorlyaeum.
Muslim relief force under Kerbogha Karbuqa of Mosul heading to Antioch. Baldwin reaches Edessa al-Ruha to Arabs whose prince is Thoros. Baldwin takes control of Edessa.